Multiple sclerosis ( MS ) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system ( CNS ) , which means that inflammatory damage may affect large and small brain , brain stem and spinal cord . MS occurs at all ages , but is most common between 18 and 50 years of age . The disease is of unknown cause and unpredictable course . Today’s findings and the results of numerous studies indicate that MS is an autoimmune disease that occurs activity or environmental factors and the influence of genetic susceptibility to MS.
The main characteristic of the disease multiple sclerosis is a dominant inflammation of the myelin sheath of nerve CNS , while the nerve fibers themselves initially relatively spared . Therefore, the disease is one of the large group of so-called demyelinating diseases . Peripheral nerves , ie . The nerves that transmit nerve impulses to the periphery ( innervate the muscles of the head and body ) also have myelin sheaths , but in multiple sclerosis peripheral nervous system remains spared . Symptoms of the disease are caused by damage to the myelin sheath . Depending on the localization and extent of the damage envelope produced motor impairment ( eg disorder of movement or weakness of motor power extremities ) , impaired sensation , decreased visual acuity , disturbed the balance , control sphincter and others.
The frequency of multiple sclerosis.
The disease is most common in northern Europe , North America and Australia – the frequency of MS in these parts about 100 per 100,000 people. There are also so-called . hotbeds of multiple sclerosis ( in Scotland , the Faroe Islands , etc. ) , where the frequency of about 300 per 100,000 people . In Asia, the prevalence of the disease around 5 patients on 100.000stanovnika. The disease does not occur in the natives of America , Canada and Australia and is extremely rare . Similarly, the incidence of the disease in Eskimos , Lapps and Roma.U our country the focus of multiple sclerosis is in Gorski Kotar , in the area of Cabra.
What is the function of the myelin sheath ? Myelin sheath allows rapid spread of nerve impulses , but also the protection and nutrition of nerve fibers , and it causes damage to the barrenness and gradually damage , degeneration of nerve fibers . Damage to the myelin sheath prevents adequate implementation of nerve impulses ; with minor damage can be carried out some slower pulses , rather than spend the fast frequency pulses , which is reflected varying intensity neurological disorder.